How Europe Underdeveloped Africa is a 1972 book written by Walter Rodney that breaks down how Africa was deliberately exploited and underdeveloped by European colonial regimes. Rodney explains that both power politics and economic exploitation of Africa by Europeans led to the poor state of African political and economic development evident in the late 20th century. This book is one of the most acclaimed books written in the 20th century about African development and post-colonial theory alongside Frantz Fanon, The Wretched Of The Earth. 416 pages Published 23rd October 2018
The Mis-Education of the Negro is one of the most important books on education ever written. The oppressor has always indoctrinated the weak with his interpretation of the crimes of the strong. Considered Woodson's seminal work, this text explores his thesis that African Americans were being culturally indoctrinated, rather than taught, in American schools. He asserts that this conditioning caused African-Americans to become dependent and to seek out inferior places in the greater society of which they were a part. Woodson skillfully exposes the weaknesses of Euro-centric based curriculums that failed to include African American history and culture. Published November 1st 2006.
Sheds light on the continual exploitation of Africa by the West In this sequel to The West And The Rest Of Us, Chinweizu questions the colonial mentality, in its various manifestations, and how it has continually obstructed African economic development and cultural renaissance since political decolonization was achieved. And while it is generally known about the deleterious effects of European colonialism on African development, in Decolonising the African Mind, Chinweizu uncompromisingly reveals the same deleterious effects Arab colonialism has had on African development, in contrast to the generally held notion that domination of Africans by Arabs was some type of benign conquest in comparison to the white man. Chinweizu accurately stuns the reader that Europeans and Arabs have historical had their own political designs on the African continent, which was not for the benefit of African people. What becomes clear while reading this book, is that no matter what propaganda tries to suggest, Africa is not an overseas cash cow or provenience for Europeans or Arabs. Africans around the world must maintain the unapologetically and uncompromisingly claim their African identity, as opposed to being lost in some “multicultural” melting pot, with identities like “person of colour”. Which is ironic, as majority of the world has colour, the only people without colour is Europeans, by understanding the invasion of Africa by Arabs, Africans can understand that liberation will not come by negating one’s African identity into the fraternity of “people of colour”. Then central objective in decolonising the African mind is to overthrow the authority which alien and detrimental traditions exercise over the African. This demands the dismantling of white supremacist beliefs, and the structures which uphold them, in every area of African life. One should certainly use items from other traditions provided they are consistent with African cultural independence and serve African objectives; but one should neither ape nor revere them, let alone sacrifice African interest to them. Review - "Sheds light on the continual exploitation of Africa by the West wherein the so-called development of Africa is actually a debt trap from which developed nations benefit. Much food for thought here. The author moves beyond the "blame game" and explores solutions. I was also struck by the honesty and fairness when it came to measuring the scale and impact of outside influences on African society, culture, art and literature". Published 1st January 1987. 294 pages.
The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present From the era of slavery to the present day, the first full history of black Americas shocking mistreatment as unwilling and unwitting experimental subjects at the hands of the medical establishment. Medical Apartheid is the first and only comprehensive history of medical experimentation on African Americans. Starting with the earliest encounters between black Americans and Western medical researchers and the racist pseudoscience that resulted, a tradition that continues today within some black populations. It reveals how blacks have historically been prey to grave-robbing as well as unauthorised autopsies and dissections. Moving into the twentieth century, it shows how the pseudoscience of eugenics and social Darwinism was used to justify experimental exploitation and shoddy medical treatment of blacks, and the view that they were biologically inferior, oversexed, and unfit for adult responsibilities. Shocking new details about the governments notorious Tuskegee experiment are revealed, as are similar, less-well-known medical atrocities conducted by the government, the armed forces, prisons, and private institutions. The product of years of prodigious research into medical journals and experimental reports long undisturbed, Medical Apartheid reveals the hidden underbelly of scientific research and makes possible, for the first time, an understanding of the roots of the African American health deficit. It provides the fullest possible context for comprehending the behavioral fallout that has caused black Americans to view researchers and indeed the whole medical establishment with such deep distrust. No one concerned with issues of public health and racial justice can afford not to read Medical Apartheid, a masterful book that will stir up both controversy and long-needed debate. 512 pages First published 9th January 2007
A Moral, Political And Economic Imperative For The Twenty-First Century. Blueprint for Black Power: A Moral, Political And Economic Imperative For The Twenty-First Century, details a master plan for the power revolution necessary for Black survival in the 21st century. Amos Wilson that an African American/Caribbean/Pan-African bloc would be most potent for the generation and delivery of Black power in the United States and the World to counter White and Asian power networks. By breaking down the U.S. elite power structure of government, political parties, think tanks, corporations, foundations, media, interest groups, banking and foreign investment particulars. Potentially strong Black institutions as the church, media and think tanks; industry; collectives such as investment clubs and credit unions; rotating credit associations such as Afrikan-originated esusu, tontine and partner are analyzed. Review - "The title “Blueprint for Blackpower” speaks for itself in that it is a guide to understanding, analyzing and overcoming social constructs that inhibit collective empowerment for people of the African diaspora. It’s a powerful book that can be referred to for years to come as a teaching tool to transform lives with the ultimate goal of changing the trajectory of communities. It will open the reader’s mind to a deeper understanding of the African Americans’ plight in an economical and political context. One concept deeply engraved in this book is analyzing the African American population in the context of a nation. This perspective allows Dr.Wilson to succinctly place and assess the predicament African Americans are in and a vision to get out. Highly Recommended!" Published January 1st 1998. 889 pages.
In his new book, Vaccines Are Dangerous A Warning to the Global Community 2nd Edition, Mr. Cost exposes the misinformation that has been told to the general public regarding vaccines by showing the contradictions in the medical establishment's own literature. He encourages parents and others to do some research before taking any vaccine. Mr. Cost holds a BA from Vassar College and an MBA from Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Management. He has worked in corporate sales, marketing research, and management. He is the author of What Is Safe Sex In The Age of AIDS? - for which he was nominated the best new author of the year by the National Black Achievement Awards. He is also the author of the first edition of Vaccines Are Dangerous. Mr. Cost has been interviewed on Tony Brown's Journal, The Gary Byrd Show, The Gary Null Show as well as by publications such as Ebony Magazine, The Amsterdam News, The Daily Challenge, The New York Times, and The Village Voice.
The contributors to this book examine the economic constraints to growth and development faced by sub-Saharan African countries. These constraints include the underdevelopment of domestic capital markets, the lack of national and regional infrastructures, and the ongoing dependence on the export of commodities whose prices and markets are volatile and remain largely determined by the large companies of western countries. At the same time, the book discusses the international community's responsibility to remove obstacles of its own making and create the necessary international conditions that would enable Africa to overcome its development and poverty problems. Experienced scholars and policymakers from Africa, policy-oriented experts from western and Asian countries, and research-oriented officials of the IMF, World Bank, UN and WTO present their views on Africas challenges. Their analyses provide useful insights into how policies can be improved at the national, regional and international levels. All of the chapters defy some cliches about Africas development. The book includes an interesting discussion about the development model Ð the role of the state and the role of the market Ð that would best fit African realities, and the lessons that can be learned from experiences in Latin America and Asia. It also includes a timely analysis of the developmental role of emerging Asian investments into Africa The contributing authors are deeply concerned about AfricaÕs fate. Their analyses and solutions are highly useful to those who want to contribute to improving the economic situation in Africa. Some of the issues discussed in this book are also of great relevance to the development prospects, not only of the African region, but of poor countries in general.
In The Everyday Language of White Racism, Jane H. Hill provides an incisive analysis of everyday language to reveal the underlying racist stereotypes that continue to circulate in American culture. It provides a detailed background on the theory of race and racism reveals how racializing discourse—talk and text that produces and reproduces ideas about races and assigns people to them—facilitates a victim-blaming logic integrates a broad and interdisciplinary range of literature from sociology, social psychology, justice studies, critical legal studies, philosophy, literature, and other disciplines that have studied racism, as well as material from anthropology and sociolinguistics
21st Century version of Napoleon Hill's Think and Grow Rich - Super Achiever Edition Organizes success principles into twelve universal action laws. Each law is presented with biblical/metaphysical foundations while demonstrating step-by-step action-techniques for applying the law and getting desired results. The "Super Achiever Edition" contains comments and testimonials from 30 persons who have used the Twelve Universal Laws of Success to change their lives. This book puts concepts in "The Secret" into action. Perfect for readers of all ages who want to master the secrets of success and change their lives. A success-cookbook filled with recipes for personal change and growth. This success book is a well-organized, easily readable treatment of proven success action-principles. Each universal law is presented showing its biblical and metaphysical foundations while demonstrating step-by-step action techniques to apply the law and get results. A self-help book that uses Biblical principles to facilitate personal development. Contains contributions from 30 Super Achievers who have benefited from the book. Perfect for readers who want to quickly learn the laws of success and put their knowledge into action.
The Encyclopedia of Black Studies is the leading reference source for dynamic and innovative research on the Black experience. The concept for the encyclopedia was developed from the successful Journal of Black Studies (SAGE) and contains a full analysis of the economic, political, sociological, historical, literary, and philosophical issues related to Americans of African descent. This single-volume reference is the vanguard of the recent explosive growth in quality scholarship in the field. More than a chronicle of black culture or black people, this encyclopedia deals with the emergence and maturity of an intellectual field over the past four decades. Beginning with the protests at San Francisco State College in 1967 that led to the first degree-granting department of Black Studies, the field′s rapid growth over time necessitates an authoritative account of the discipline.
Uncovers the often-overlooked stories of the women who shaped the black freedom struggle The story of the black freedom struggle in America has been overwhelmingly male-centric, starring leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and Huey Newton. With few exceptions, black women have been perceived as supporting actresses; as behind-the-scenes or peripheral activists, or rank and file party members. But what about Vicki Garvin, a Brooklyn-born activist who became a leader of the National Negro Labor Council and guide to Malcolm X on his travels through Africa? What about Shirley Chisholm, the first black Congresswoman? From Rosa Parks and Esther Cooper Jackson, to Shirley Graham DuBois and Assata Shakur, a host of women demonstrated a lifelong commitment to radical change, embracing multiple roles to sustain the movement, founding numerous groups and mentoring younger activists. Helping to create the groundwork and continuity for the movement by operating as local organizers, international mobilizers, and charismatic leaders, the stories of the women profiled in Want to Start a Revolution? help shatter the pervasive and imbalanced image of women on the sidelines of the black freedom struggle. Contributors: Margo Natalie Crawford, Prudence Cumberbatch, Johanna Fernendez, Diane C. Fujino, Dayo F. Gore, Joshua Guild, Gerald Horne, Ericka Huggins, Angela D. LeBlanc-Ernest, Joy James, Erik McDuffie, Premilla Nadasen, Sherie M. Randolph, James Smethurst, Margaret Stevens, and Jeanne Theoharis.
Towards A Reclamation Of The Afrikan Mind Today's problems of self-hatred has very deep historical roots going way back into colonial history of the 15th Century and beyond. Amos Wilson breakdowns its origins as it evolved from biblical times with curse of Ham in the Old Testament up through the Middle Ages, enslavement, Jim Crow sadism and up to the present time. This journey has had long lasting impact on the creating, shaping and defining of the African American personality in particular, and the African personality worldwide. This text sets about exploring this development in its many aspects and attempts a reclamation of the African mind. Herein Amos Wilson attempts with surgical precision a remediation of this psycho-historical malady". Review - "Amos Wilson, is misrepresented as merely a Psychologist or even a social activist. Wilson is right up there with Frantz Fanon. Most black authors today are merely historians who write material that has emotive value, but little else. Wilson's work is of such importance and scholarship that it is the litmus test for any black man or woman with a genuine interest in how we became what we are today- both individually and collectively. In addition to pointing to how we got to where we are, Wilson does what so many black so-called intellectuals are unable to do- clearly layout the road to psychological transformation and renewal. A heart felt thanks to the people who continue to publish his works"! Published January 1st 2003. 305 pages. Published January 1 2020.
Eurocentric History, Psychiatry And The Politics Of White Supremacy. This book presents two revolutionary lectures by Amos Wilson. The first, European Historiography and Oppression Exposed: An Afrikan Perspective and Analysis, was among the first contemporary analyses which delineated the role Eurocentric history-writing plays in rationalising European oppression of Afrikan people and in the falsification of Afrikan consciousness. Review - "I am so pleased with this publication and I want to buy more books from Dr. Amos Wilson. The content is absolutely a masterclass of psychological insight. We are invited to explore how we view history. Basically, we are programmed to view 'history', as a celebration only, however, the book emphasized the importance of learning from the past and provides key evidence to support higher learning. An informative, intellectual book that conveys the importance of understanding Afrikan Consciousness and the role of the system, in dictating and brainwashing the Afrikan. It is emancipating and doesn't teach hate, but love, for self, as we are born into a world that teaches us to love every other race, but the Afrikan. Amazing. Published July 1st 1993. 139 pages.
Excellent collection of speeches! John Henrik Clarke covers an array of topics through this selection of speeches, from the contributions of Nile Vally civilizations to the future of Pan-Africanism in the 21st century. Review - "Dr. Clarke does an incredible job of stringing together the common historical threads that constitute a cultural imperative among africans in america towards the eventualization of our spiritual, physical, and psyco-socioeconomic freedom. The level of analysis that he provides is almost comforting in the face of a broader society that would regard this field as a psuedo-science". Published August 1st 1993. 223 pages.
An Incisive Look Into Masculinity And The Societal Definition Of Afrikan Amos Wilson examines Issues of Manhood in its complexity, just the mention of manhood conjures up debate. Manhood in definition seems to be ever-changing, under challenge and charge. In view of behaviour often confusing, violent, sometimes immature, and invariably nonproductive, frequently to the detriment of the black community, manhood stokes discussion and search for an alternative, even status quo overthrow. Amos puts the much debated question under further scrutiny, "what is a man", "be a man", man as leader, provider and producer, is encased in a political, economic, social and geopolitical framework largely in the manufacture and control of a dominating power oft-times white, racist, ruthless, American, where ambition and opportunities to succeed are curtailed, few, education poor or inappropriate, history and psychohistory deemed irrelevant, violence and aggression without respite, where city, state and national governmental regimes care little to alleviate these conditions except line the coffers of wealthy friends and class allies as entitlement. Although delivered over 25 years ago, in view of right wing racist ascent to governmental office nationwide, his accuracy seems spot-on prophetic. This text we partner with Understanding Black Adolescent Male Violence where Wilson again shows in detail how American society creates and sustains Black adolescent criminality in its inner-cities across the United States. He boldly asserts that Black-on-Black youth violence is rooted in historical and contemporary White-on-Black violence. Wilson advances a continental African paradigm worthy of discussion and applicability to Diasporan males, one that dovetails with female understanding of black males, her mate selection, childrearing and steadfast in forging family and community vital to tribe and nation. Review - " I think Amos Wilson is misrepresented. While he was a trained Psychologist, he is one of the most profound Existentialist thinkers I have ever read. Where he belongs is with Franz Fanon! His work on consciousness and the orientation of one person to another is nothing short of brilliant. Defining manhood is of the upmost importance in Afrikan societies and because many of us in Amerikkka dont receive this training its imperative we read this book". Published 1st December 2016. 146 pages.
PowerNomics: The National Plan to Empower Black America is a five-year plan to make Black America a prosperous and empowered race that is self-sufficient and competitive as a group by the year 2005. In this book, Dr. Anderson obliterates the myths and illusions of black progress and brings together data and information from many different sources to construct a framework for solutions to the dilemma of Black America. In PowerNomics: The National Plan, Dr. Anderson proposes new principles, strategies and concepts that show blacks a new way to see, think, and behave in race matters. The new mindset prepares blacks to take strategic steps to create a new reality for their race. It offers guidance to others who support blacks self-sufficiency. In this book, Dr. Anderson offers insightful analysis and action steps blacks can take to redesign core areas of life - Education, Economics, Politics and Religion - to better benefit their race. The action steps in each area require new empowerment tools that Dr. Anderson presents - a new group vision and a new culture of empowerment - tools designed to counter, if not break many of the racial monopolies in society. Vertical integration and Industrializing black communities are other major concepts and strategies that he presents in the book. He places a great deal of importance on building industries in black communities that are constructed upon group competitive advantages. A the same time he announced the release of PowerNomics: The National Plan, he also announced that he has established several models of the strategies he proposes in the book. PowerNomics: The Plan, is infused with Dr. Anderson's trademark creative thinking and answers questions such as: Why are blacks the only group that equates success with working in a White corporation, government or the entertainment industry? How did power and wealth - businesses, resources, privileges, income and control of all levels of government get so disproportionately distributed into the hands of White society? Industrialization brings many economic benefits to the geographic locations where it occurs. Why has Black America never been industrialized and how can it be done? Why do visible blacks and black leaders avoid blackness, identifying the focus of their work instead for people of color, minorities, women, gays , the poor, Hispanics, and other immigrant groups? What enables a constant stream of immigrant groups to politically, economically and socially dominate blacks? In politics, how is it that blacks can be monolithic and loyal political supporters yet their group receives no quid pro quo benefits? In his first book, Black Labor, White Wealth, Dr. Anderson examined history and showed how racism has locked and boxed blacks into a near permanent underclass. Picking up where Black Labor, White Wealth left off, PowerNomics: The National Plan is the missing link between the historical analysis of problems facing blacks and the strategies needed to correct those problems. Dr. Anderson's books are a phenomenon in the publishing industry. His work is distinguished because he has turned books that are serious, non-fiction, and heavy on black history, into best-sellers. PowerNomics: The National Plan continues that pattern. It is an astounding work.
The Procreative Duality of Eternal Oneness Versus The Politics of Western Hypnosis. The Procreative Duality of Eternal Oneness Versus The Politics of Western Hypnosis &The Philosophy of Maat Kemetic-Soulism: Exposes the diabolical system of Global European ImperialismTopics include.. Melanin VS Non-Melanin The Fraud of Western Democracy The Astronomical Origin of Western Religions Rooted in Afrakan-Kemetic Spirituality and Meditation VS Western and Arabic Religion, and much more!!
According to countless mainstream news organs, Elijah Muhammad, by far, was the most powerful black man in America of his time. Known more for the students he produced, like Malcolm X, Louis Farrakhan and Muhammad Ali, this controversial man exposed the black man as well as the world to a teaching, till now, was only used behind closed doors of high degree Masons and Shriners. An easy and smart read. The book approaches the question of what and who is God. It compares the concept held by religions to nature and mathematics. It also explores the origin of the original man, mankind, devil, heaven and hell. Its title, Message To The Blackman, is directed to the American Blacks specifically, but addresses blacks universally as well.
The Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federated State: Economic and Cultural Basis for a Federal State This expanded edition continues Diop's campaign for the political and economic unification of the nations of black Africa. It concludes with a lengthy interview with Diop.
One of the preeminent Book for Prehistoric Sources of Western Man's Racism, Sexism and Aggression Argues that racism, the threat of nuclear war, environmental pollution, and other social problems are the result of the behavior, values, and psychology of the white race.
The Psychodynamics Of Black Self-Annihilation On Service Of White Domination Black-on-Black Violence: The Psychodynamics of Black Self-Annihilation in the Service of White Domination represents a distinct milestone in criminology and Afrikan Studies. Its explanatory viewpoints on the sociopsychological and politicoeconomic causes of Black-on-Black Violence are exceptionally insightful, incisive and iconoclastic. The psychodynamics of the Black-on-Black criminal are presented here with a depth and clarity rarely seen before. The main body of this book is that the operational existence of Black-on-Black violence in the United States is psychologically and economically mandated by the White American-dominated status quo. The criminalisation of the Afrikan male in America is a psychopolitically engineered process designed to maintain the dependency and relative powerlessness of Afrikan communities. Black-on-Black Violence, however, moves far beyond blaming the victimiser. Its meticulous and painstaking exposure of the psychosocial and intrapsychical dynamics of Black-on-Black criminality is startlingly revealing. Its analyses of the collective psyches of both the White American and Afrikan communities are unsparingly and powerfully instructive. The book, in revealing the anatomy of Black-on-Black violence, simultaneously lays the practical, intellectual and political foundations for its social eradication. Review - "This has to be one of the most powerful books I've read in a long time. Dr. Amos Wilson is a genius when it comes to the Psychodynamics of racism, hate, and love. I truly appreciate his work and passion to uplift the black community. Someone had too! My consciousnesses has risen 10,000 degrees!" Published November 1st 1991. 204 pages.
Woodson wrote this text to educate teachers and the general public about Africa. Carter G. Woodson was an African American writer and historian known as the 'Father of Black History.' He penned the influential book 'The Mis-Education of the Negro. Part I of the book presents a brief summary of Africa’s past, including chapters on "The Negro in Africa," "The Negro in the European Mind," "The Negro in America," "The Negro in Literature," "The Negro in Art," "The Education of the Negro," "The Religious Development of the Negro," and "Economic Imperialism." Published April 28th 1969. 490 pages.
For the first time is evidence for one of the most dramatic, but distorted, ignored and forgotten episodes of human history. Michael Bradley is one of the most underrated scholars of our time. One of a number of books indicating the African presence among nations and people outside of Africa as early as 800 B.C. and probably before. Dawn Voyage: The Black African Discovery of America reveals the agricultural, religious, artistic and architectural evidence that "Black" Africans from the sub-Sahara were probably the first "discoverers" of America from across the Atlantic, but notes that the first true "discoverers" were, the Asiatic nomads crossing the Bering Land Bridge during the period of the last "Ice Age".The book also shows readers evidence that, seafaring Asians possibly reached America across the Pacific earlier than "Black" Africans from across the Atlantic. But the evidence is presented to show that African contact, unlike possible sporadic Oriental sea-borne contact, actually influenced the development of Mezo-american civilisations in important ways. Review - "excellent book. well documented and well written. discusses the pre columbian contact of african civilization with american civilizations, supports the theory of trans atlantic voyages and the dissemination of cultural traits from africa to america". Published 1987*, July 1st 2011. 193 pages. .
An essay on Black-Jewish relations, primarily in the United States, by a professor of African American History who became embroiled in controversy over his classroom use of a book detailing the well- documented Jewish role in the Atlantic slave trade. The Jewish Onslaught discusses, among other things, the increasing attacks of Jewish organizations on Black leaders and scholars, the alleged halcyon period of a Black-Jewish alliance, the Jewish role in the slave trade and the Jewish attack on Afrocentrism.
Sharpened Black Perspectives on Americanization, Africa, War and Reparations "Pawned Sovereignty will be a collector's item, alongside Welsing's Isis Papers and Woodson's Mis-Education of the Negro." - Rolling Out Magazine "The themes of Ezrah Aharones political book, Pawned Sovereignty, revolve around Black America being a "free," but not a "sovereign" people. The book however does not promote a sovereign movement, but rather a sovereign consciousness and evolutionary outlooks."Since sovereignty (not civil rights) is the pinnacle of all freedoms, the book provides Black America with solutions and insightful viewpoints, based on sovereign-minded frames of reference. This approach pierces the core of mainstream body politics and leads to redefined ideals and worldviews which better serve Black/African interests. According to Aharone, "Such outlooks also help bridge the political and philosophical gap that now separates Hip Hop from the Civil Rights/Black Power generation.""A central premise of Pawned Sovereignty concerns what he calls different "Concepts of Freedom." According to Aharone, Black America's concept of freedom has historically been limited to "Civil Rights, Integration, and Citizenship." However, freedom for White America entails nothing less than "Sovereignty, Independence, and Statehood." Aharone says, "This conceptual distinction is arguably the most consequential, yet most unrecognized, source of racial disharmony and inequities. As a result, certain sociopolitical conditions that Whites would never tolerate have become normalized within the Black Experience.""Aharone surgically dissects and separates the flaws and misperceptions from the realities of American democracy, while drawing political distinctions between the character of America and the image of America. In prototype fashion, he reconfigures today's sociopolitical landscape as he expounds on 55 original topics."Among other things, Aharone asserts that whether the issue is international terrorism; domestic crime and homicides; or inadequate numbers of Blacks in government . . . the solution does not lie within America's current "Brand" of democracy. Pawned Sovereignty addresses the root causes of such issues, while offering prescriptions to remedy both the human and systemic failures of American democracy. The blueprint he outlines will undoubtedly enhance or make you rethink your worldviews.""Aharone's bold blueprint for black sovereignty sounds more like a long overdue prescription than an incendiary manifesto." - Lloyd Kam Williams, Syndicated Writer
This book presents an explosive collection of essays that call for Black consciousness and revolutionary action. Haki R. Madhubuti is an African American author, educator, and poet. He received a Master of Fine Arts degree at the University of Iowa, and served in the U.S. Army from 1960 to 1963. Madhubuti is a major contributor to the Black literary tradition, in particular through his early association with the Black Arts Movement beginning in the mid-60s, and major influence, even today. A proponent of independent Black institutions, Madhubuti is the founder, publisher, and chairman of the board of Third World Press, which today is the largest independent black-owned press in the United States. Haki R. Madhubuti examines Black nationalism, white minority rule, Pan-Africanism, the real need for Black institutions and the role of the creative artist in Black struggle. Published June 1st 1978. 272 pages.